chapter  2
Individual differences in smell and taste: Age, sex, personality and culture
Pages 17

With senses that are as incompletely understood as smell and taste, it is not surprising that the responses to them tend not to be universal (although some responses are more universal than others, especially gustatory ones). Individual differences exert strong and different effects on each sense and some effects are more remarkable than others. Those that are of greatest importance are age and sex and, to a lesser extent, personality and culture. There are also modality-specific individual differences such as the inability to detect androstenone and its derivatives (a specific anosmia, discussed in Chapter 5) and high reactivity to bitter taste (PROP tasters).