The role of research is important in the development of any therapeutic intervention. This is especially true of any new, relatively unknown intervention that potentially challenges conventional treatment methods and assumptions. Although neurofeedback laboratory research began many decades ago, with the advent of advanced electroencephalography (EEG) and computer technology, it has today experienced a resurgent clinical interest. It is now practical for individual practitioners to become trained and supervised, purchase the equipment, and provide neurofeedback training as another clinical strategy in the treatment of many psychological and behavioral disorders. As a third clinical option, alongside counseling and medication (Russell-Chapin & Chapin, 2011), neurofeedback research has exploded with over 250 studies in the past 7 years (Myers & Young, 2012). However, many important questions remain to be answered in fully evaluating its effi cacy. This is no simple matter. While many outcome studies have reported impressive results, their designs have been criticized, casting doubt on neurofeedback’s benefi t to clients. More recent work with extensive reviews, meta-analyses, improved research design, and brain imaging studies have improved neurofeedback’s effi cacy ratings, with many respected mental health and medical professionals calling for its use in clinical practice.