Vehicle construction techniques tend to follow a number of similar patterns from the variety of manufacturers. In this chapter we will discuss some of the general principles involved in how cars and light commercial vehicles are made. You will realize that many vehicles are sold with different names, as though made by different ﬁrms, which are almost identical apart from their badges and levels of trim or options. This is referred to as badge engineering; it has been used since the dawn of motoring. The reason for this is that it offers economy of scale in manufacturing and greater customer choice – it is win-win for us all. For the body repairer, or vehicle restorer, it means that some parts, for example a sill panel, may ﬁt many different makes and models of vehicles – these parts are also frequently available from independent parts dealers at lower prices than through dealerships.