Preaching in New York
For the ﬁ rst time in her life, in 1828, the 31-year-old Isabella left rural New York. She moved to New York City. She was free, beholden to no one, but without savings, education, or community. Th e city was a bustling place; the age of industrialization was about to begin, and New York’s poorer sections were bursting with overcrowded slums, horse drawn streetcars, and manufacturing on the verge of expansion. Th ousands of immigrants had recently arrived from Ireland and Germany; they staﬀ ed the burgeoning economythe workshops, the canals, and the hospitality industry. Th e immigrants, especially the Irish, rapidly acquired political inﬂ uence. Th ese white male citizens were the greatest beneﬁ ciaries of the expansion of voting rights that occurred when Andrew Jackson, the son of poor Scotch-Irish parents, became President.