Crime, ‘traditional’ and ‘new’
This chapter discusses how criminal acts were defined and regarded by contemporary society and deals with both the increasing criminalization of ‘traditional’ wrongdoing and the introduction of ‘new’ forms of crime resulting from economic and technical developments. As noted above, the period under discussion was particularly turbulent, and this was reflected in the changing perceptions of crime and in the types of crime committed. Here will be discussed the changing perceptions of what constituted criminal behaviour, including ‘new’ forms of crime such as ‘social’ crime and financial crime, and the increasing criminalization of the poor. A clear definition of the types of activities considered to be criminal during the period will be attempted and also reasons for the many changes in what were perceived as ‘criminal’ acts suggested. Several case studies, again, act as exemplars.