Economic sanctions against South Africa, 1978–1994
International sanctions against South Africa in an effort to end apartheid is perhaps the best known case of economic sanctions. Since the nature of international demands-abolition of the governing statutes of the country and, in effect, the replacement of the white majority regime with an inclusive one-involved regime survival, sanctions success would be difficult to explain using realist model (R). Since the magnitude of economic sanctions, encompassing inter alia an OPEC oil embargo and broad-based import bans, were of great significance, especially by the mid-1980s, a sanctions failure would be damaging for commercial liberal model (R). Furthermore, as we explain below, since South Africa was democratic-at least for its white selectorate-a sanctions failure would be problematic for conditionalist regime model (CR). This chapter compares the utility of our TSI and stateness hypotheses to those of the three conventional models in a high-profile case. To this end, we begin with a brief background of international attempts to end apartheid and escalating economic sanctions against the regime. We then assess both South African TSI (associated with both compliance and resistance) as well as changing patterns of South African stateness during the period. We continue with an evaluation of the efficacy of economic sanctions against South Africa and what factors brought about that outcome. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of what this important case, on its own, tells us about the four competing models of economic statecraft.