chapter  4
16 Pages

Managing complexity

The two techniques entitled Action, Research, Training (ART) and Planning, Inquiry, Evaluation (PIE) raise critical questions about learning and understanding grounded in meaningful action. Both tools raise another key challenge: how to ground the planning of an inquiry process and the actions that follow in a complex world? How can people investigate real-life situations and act on them collaboratively at the same time as they factor in uncertainty and the unknown?