Factors and reasons
Problem solving hinges on an adequate grasp of the situation that requires attention and of the forces and factors at play. In this chapter, we introduce Force Field, a tool inspired by Lewin’s understanding of the situational field. For him this is a ‘lifespace’ that brings together forces that drive movement towards a goal and those that block the same movement and call for adaptive behaviour (Lewin, 1951). We also offer an original tool developed and applied in collaboration with Patrick Obertelli (École Centrale de Paris), entitled Paradox. It is inspired by the insights of paradoxical interventions in psychology. The tool looks at efforts and practices to handle an existing problem and explores at the same time individual and collective interests, values and attitudes that maintain or veil the problem and are difficult to comprehend.