Imagine the following scene: Several nonproﬁ t organizations get together and decide to collaborate, to jointly inﬂ uence the city’s education policies. All nonproﬁ ts agree that immigrant rights are not being suffi ciently protected under the current policies: At some schools, newly arrived children do not get suffi cient support; at other schools, second language courses, in addition to English, are few and poorly taught; those areas of the city densely populated with ﬁ rst-and second-generation immigrants have fewer (and less qualiﬁ ed) schools; and undocumented children often bump into administrative barriers when applying for schooling aids due to their legal status. During their second meeting, the nonproﬁ ts’ directors discuss how they are going to act together and begin developing a joint advocacy strategy. The director of a nonproﬁ t serving mostly ﬁ rst-and second-generation Chinese Americans proposes to set up a series of meetings with the city’s Mayor and its Councilor of Education. The representative of another nonproﬁ t sees this strategy as legitimizing the unfairness-her nonproﬁ t serves mostly undocumented Latino immigrants-and proposes a march to put pressure on the Mayor. The advocacy director of yet another nonproﬁ t, whose constituents are mostly Mexicans, argues that it is essential to demand for bilingual education, while the leader of a union replies that this demand would be counterproductive and that it is currently not a priority. The discrepancies among the diff erent nonproﬁ ts cool off the initial stamina and the collaborative eventually stagnates.