Applying an empirical logic of governance
The study of program implementation has made great strides since the 1970s (Goggin et al., 1990). No longer are policy analysts solely dependent upon deeply investigated, but isolated qualitative case studies like those of pioneers Derthick (1972) or Pressman and Wildavsky (1973). Though this practice continues to have great value, it is no longer the only source of valuable understanding about the way public programs are implemented. Likewise (hopefully), gone are the days of rudimentary, overly simplified, underpowered, and highly deterministic quantitative models (Goggin, 1986). As Lynn et al. (2001) argued, the tools now exist that allow researchers to develop studies that follow a new “logic of governance”. Indeed, the literature now has several fine examples of thoughtfully designed empirical comparative analyses, constructed by quantitative-minded implementation scholars (Lester and Bowman, 1989; Lowry, 1992; Ringquist, 1993a, 1993b, 1995a, 1995b; Sholz and Wang, 1996).