System dynamics I: stocks and ﬂows
System dynamics is a mature discipline, initially developed in the 1950s by Jay Forrester at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is designed to support investigations into the behaviour of complex systems, particularly those involving human decision making. Its practitioners have a strong focus on the development of effective management policies. As John Sterman (2000: 4) deﬁnes it: “[s]ystem dynamics is a method to enhance learning in complex systems.” An excellent intro - ductory discussion is given by Meadows (2009). Sterman (2000) has thoroughly reviewed the ﬁeld, its concepts, systems-thinking tools, and modelling methods.