The original federation
The present and next chapters scrutinise the orthodox assertions that federal conditions enhance personal and corporate liberty. To this end, they closely examine American federalism. The paradigmatic character of the American Union is the reason for looking in some detail at its history. Subsequent federation builders looked up to the USA as a model to imitate, 1 and constitutionalists of the late nineteenth century onwards have portrayed the US government as the embodiment of the federal principle. 2 As such, the American federation has been, explicitly or implicitly, the benchmark against which most outside observers would ﬁ nd the federation designed by the Bolsheviks wanting. Hence, it is expected here that the process of examining American federalism will help elucidate the reasons for such non-recognition of the USSR’s federality.