Introduction In Chapter 1, a distinction was made between qualitative and quantitative data and assessments. To restate that distinction, qualitative data and assessments are more naturalistic, usually gathered and assessed by observing children’s performance on authentic reading and writing and on other authentic classroom assignments. Analysis of these data tends to be more concerned with process and the quality of children’s approaches and strategies. On the other hand, quantitative data and assessments focus more on the product, or the outcome, such as the number correct or the number incorrect. Quantitative assessments are usually contrived-that is, collected from more formal tests rather than from more authentic student work.