Introduction Th is chapter discusses and describes a variety of informal observational and sampling assessment procedures that would be useful to a classroom teacher. Th ese formative assessment procedures can be done by the teacher within the regular school day without interrupting or forsaking other classroom activities and necessary instruction. In fact, several of these procedures should serve as springboards to instruction, while others are designed to be done as part of instruction. Th e information gathered through these assessments and others (described in the next chapter) will be analyzed and used in a “qualitative” way by the teacher. Formative assessments, as described in this book, and by the IRA (2013), go hand in hand with qualitative assessment. Th is qualitative emphasis involves the teacher observing many samples of students’ motivations, work, and strategies to get a more complete view of each student in order to decide the most useful ways of helping the student develop eﬀ ective reading strategies.