When originally published this book reported the first major application of ‘labelling theory’ to deviance in classrooms. The authors explore the nature of classroom rules, show how they constitute a pervasive feature of the classroom, and examine the ways in which teachers use these rules as grounds for imputing ‘deviance’ to pupils. A theory of social typing is developed to show how teachers come to define certain pupils as deviant persons such as ‘troublemakers’ and several case-studies are used to document this analysis. Finally, the teachers’ reactions to disruptive classroom conduct are examined as complex strategic attempts at social control in the classroom. The book has a double focus on deviance theory and the process of teaching.