The hidden pedagogy of survival
It would be sensible to summarize the argument to date. Divisions in school result, first, from its linkages with social struc-
ture. Society is divided, and to a certain extent teachers are forced into reproducing these divisions. Pupils aid their own stratification through group perspectives, and the supporting frameworks of these perspectives are driven further in by teacher policy and school organization. Divisions also result from institutionalization. Pupils 'adapt' to school in various ways, but many lead a 'double' life as 'pupil' and as 'person'. They themselves recognize instinctively the distinguishing features of the bureaucratic institution in the form of rules, routine, hierarchy and so on, and detect a similar division in teachers too, between what we might call teacher-bureaucrats, those whose teacher-styles are governed by the school's rational and bureaucratic processes, and teacherpersons, those whose images are governed by more humane considerations. There is an undercurrent of dissatisfaction about these divisions, but nonetheless a certain resignation, a feeling of 'that's the way it is'. That is the arena in which they have to work out their adaptations, and they do it. Occasionally the two arenas, pupil and personal, public and private, merge to mutual advantage as in 'warm' teacher-pupil relationships or collide, as in 'showing-up', and heavy conflict is produced.