In trying to make sense of pupil activity we search for common denominators that promise to yield some sort of pattern which embraces the greater majority of them, and that are sufficiently important to account for much of their activity. An obvious place to start is in their response to the official programme, since this is something that affects them all, which cannot be ignored, and forces clear and definite reactions of one sort or another. It might be argued that there is a great deal of variable 'space' hanging round the official programme for many pupils, especially in a secondary modern school, and that another basis of comparison might therefore be preferable. There is some truth in this and in chapter 5 I offer an approach which seeks to get to the heart of 'unofficial' pupil activity. The first task, however, is to situate that within a framework which embraces the entire range of pupil commitment.