Testing and Assessment: Selection, Learning and Social Control
This chapter critically reviews the history of testing as a means of competition and social control, and its implications for student learning. There are compelling reasons supporting the need for a focus on historical development of testing systems. Assessment and testing can only be understood with reference to a country’s historical development in relation to its educational system and broader social factors (Black, 1998). The way examinations and preparation for them are approached is fi rmly infl uenced by these historical and sociocultural factors.