A changed landscape
This chapter has been renamed, expanded, and somewhat altered in character. Developments since the mid-1980s have radically extended and re-structured the ®eld to such an extent that some attempt at outlining the topography of this new landscape is now clearly required. Prior to this period, two themes overwhelmingly dominated the topic: race differences and `racism' or `race prejudice'; the race-differences approach was very much on the back foot, `racism' research dominated by the well-entrenched `attitude' theory paradigm in Social Psychology. The former is now vestigial (see Chapter 10), while the latter has been effectively blown apart by alternative methods and theoretical orientations. In addition, numerous other themes, hitherto covert at best, have come to the fore. Before looking at these we nevertheless need to look at the 1970s prelude, much as covered in the previous edition. Though ampli®ed in places, I have felt most of the original material could usefully be kept in place, albeit at the cost of structural elegance and length. The ®rst such development was the emergence, primarily in the USA, of the Black Psychology movement, begun in 1968 although with deeper roots.