chapter  2
Marketing and Sustainable Development: A Social Marketing Perspective
Pages 14

In order to meet these challenges, substantial changes at the systemic level (doing better things) are required, rather than incremental changes in existing business practices (doing things better). The need for system innovations not only

applies to business practices and production methods, but also includes the marketing of products and services. Commercial companies are increasingly being pressured to implement fundamental changes in their practices both by parastatal institutions (such as the United Nations and FAO), by national governments (legislation), and particularly also by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that call for fundamental changes in current production and marketing practices. Many companies have already incorporated corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs to take up their responsibility in the face of these global social and ecological challenges. For example, Unilever recently shifted toward a corporate sustainability strategy, with the ambitious aim of doubling its sales without increasing its environmental impact. Ben & Jerry’s®, a Unilever ice cream brand, announced that all of its portfolio will be converted to Fair Trade Certified ingredients by the end of 2013. Another global Unilever brand (Lipton) has greened its total tea assortment and is now being marketed as Rainforest Alliance Certified™. Corporate social responsibility strategies have developed into a dominant business model for many companies, partly as a deliberate proactive choice and partly in response to environmental pressure. As a recent Harvard Business Review paper (Nidumolu, Prahalad, & Rangaswami, 2009, p. 56) stated: “There’s no alternative to sustainable development.”