chapter  10
26 Pages

Social and Moral Challenges are Everywhere

Oliver Ollie Harrington Kwame Nkrumah Josephine Baker Ella Jo Baker Freedom Summer Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Rosa Parks James Brown Emmett Till Black Panthers Fred Hampton March on Washington Maulana Karenga Montgomery Bus Boycott Muhammad Ali Selma March Us Organization Irene Morgan

Racial segregation produced its own internal laws. One of the most predictable was that people who felt betrayed by the national creeds on civil and social rights would eventually, sooner rather than later, explode into resistance. In 1944 Irene Morgan, a twenty-sevenyear-old Baltimorean, was arrested and jailed in the state of Virginia for refusing to give up her seat to a white person on the interstate Greyhound bus. The white driver stopped the bus and summoned the sheriff, who tried to arrest her. Morgan tore up the arrest warrant, kicked the sheriff in the groin, and fought the deputy who dragged her off the bus. The case went to court. Two years later the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 7-1 that Virginia’s law enforcing segregation was illegal on interstate buses. Irene Morgan was born in 1917 and died in 2007.