3Maintenance and management
The cultivation of gardens has always been a struggle against climate. From the water features of Persian and Moorish gardens to the plant-houses and hot, flued walls of Scottish ones, garden design has demonstrated a preoccupation with the adaptation of the environment to enable diverse plants to thrive. The maintenance of gardens which are heavily dependent on labour or energy is no longer as practical today as it once was, because resources have diminished as costs have increased. The demise of the kitchen garden has been one inevitable result. In many gardens upkeep is only feasible if alternatives to traditional methods of maintenance can be found. The use of irrigation systems, modern equipment and machinery, and even herbicides and pesticides must all be considered.