IHSAN / IHSANI
The term ihsan refers to the doing of good deeds or inner puriﬁcation. The interpretation of this term is in the wellknown hadith on Jibril’s asking the Prophet Muhammad about the three sources of how to behave. These are islam (submission), iman (belief) and ihsan (virtue, doing good deeds), or the outward, the inward and the actualization. Islam is the outward, iman the inward and outward, and ihsan the actualization of the inward and the outward, which is what is meant by the saying of the Prophet:
( Ihsan is to worship God as if you
see Him, and if you see Him not, He sees you despite this,’ which the angel Jibril conﬁrmed. The term ihsani (intellectual) of the
Tradition of Islam, which has always been haunted by the paradoxes and contradictions of our modern age, means that it is only in fullness that integrated Islam, in which the spiritual and intellectual tradition evolved, gains an awareness of our modern context.