chapter
5 Pages

MECCAN AND MEDINA ) N SURAS AND THE QUR AN

American Central Intelligence Agency,

and cast doubt on his scholarship on the

grounds that he never received a formal

Islamic education. His writings were

frequently dismissed as being mutually

contradictory, and his opinions were

characterized as immoral, as constitut-

ing innovation (bid ( a) and even as

heresy. In 1951, in Delhi, an assembly of

the ( ulama, the Jamiyyat al-

( ulama, pas-

sed a fatwa against him, and in 1976 a

further fatwa was published, designating

him a heretic. Despite such opposition,

Mawdudi continues to be a major influ-

ence on the thinking of the Muslim

world, and his writings provide at least

one blueprint for radical Islamists.