Chapter 3 assessed estab lished par ties’ use of institutional strat egies and showed that the coun tries in which estab lished par ties engaged in the highest levels of institutional strat egies were France and Greece and the lowest levels occur in Denmark and Ireland. Established par ties in France and Greece engaged in ‘cartel-like’ beha vi ours, creating and presiding over institutional sys tems that favour the larger, estab lished par ties at the expense of smaller and newer par ties. In contrast, the institutional ar range ment in Denmark and Ireland favours smaller and newer par ties. Established par ties within France and Greece, because of their use of cartel strat egies, should achieve high levels of centrality within their national party sys tems. Established par ties in Denmark and Ireland should achieve only low levels of sys temic centrality due to their lack of engagement in institutional strategies. This chapter examines these four case studies to ana lyse whether the empirical evid ence sup ports the hypotheses. The comparisons made during the course of this chapter will test the cartel thesis, and provide an assessment of the two divergent strat egies, to determine the more effect ive strat egy for estab lished par ties. The structure of this chapter is the same as that of the previous one. The chapter commences with the case study of France, followed by Greece and then a comparison of the impact of the high use of institutional strat egies on the fate of the estab lished par ties in the two coun tries. The focus then shifts to Denmark and Ireland, studied as indi vidual case studies, before analysing the impact on the fate of estab lished par ties of the engagement in low levels of institutional strategies.