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This kind of grammatical metaphor, whereby a phenomenon of one kind is construed in a way that typically represents a phenomenon of some other kind (actions, events, qualities as if they were things) is probably the major source of problems facing those who are apprenticed to the discourse of science, whether they come to this discourse with English as their mother tongue or with English as a second language. Most of the other linguistic problems they face are related to grammatical metaphor in one way or another: for example complex technical taxonomies, and a high concentration of content words (lexical density). These problems are discussed and illustrated in the second chapter.