Introduction: Global memories, local accounts
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the north Indian region of Ladakh was neither a primary production center nor key market. Yet Ladakh played an important role in historical Central and South Asian regional trade during this time period, as a trading entrepôt that connected multiple geographic areas. Ladakh was a dynamic center of global flows where local participation was based on roads and transactions rather than fixed production or consumption points. This regional role was irrevocably altered, however, when India closed the northern borders in the mid-twentieth century.