The ﬁnal word on any subject is rarely spoken unless the subject matter has reached its own conclusion and cannot be revisited in any way. It seems unlikely that change at work will be in that situation at any time. The ﬁrst part of the title, Managing change, will always be part of the ongoing agenda of any organization, driven at very least by technology and the desire to achieve continuing productivity improvements to provide proﬁt opportunity ahead of the competition. But, as we have seen, much of the prescriptiveness contained in the ‘to do’ literature assumes that change will be a simply structured or a structural programme, easy to implement and driven by a logic that ought to be apparent to all reasonable people with any knowledge of business need. There may be an occasional ﬂurry of unease or resistance among the workers subjected to such change, but they will quickly realize that newly implemented efﬁciency factors will make their working life easier and, provided they are supported through the change with the appropriate training, they will soon be quiescent, if not enthusiastic about the change.