chapter  4
APPLICATIONS OF SURVEYING
Pages 52

There are three phases of surveys for engineering and construction purposes: (1) surveys prior to design, (2) surveys prior to construction, and (3) surveys after construction. The first category includes topographic and site detail surveys, profiles, and cross-sections for making various maps and plots. Next are the surveys for setting grade and alignment stakes, string lines, batter boards, and other construction control. Finally, are surveys of what has been built (as-built or location surveys) to assure that it has been constructed properly. Being one of the most basic applications of surveying, engineering and construction surveys utilize many of the basic surveying principles discussed earlier in this manual.