Nothing affects students more than assessment, yet they often claim that they are in the dark as to what goes on in the minds of their assessors and examiners. Involving students in peer assessment and self-assessment can let them into the assessment culture they must survive. Increasingly, peer assessment is being used to involve students more closely in their learning and its evaluation, and to help to enable students really understand what is required of them. It is not a ‘quick ﬁx’ solution to reduce staff marking time, as it is intensive in its use of lecturer time at the brieﬁng and development stages. It can have enormous beneﬁts in terms of learning gain.