After ANTONY’s victory at Philippi over Brutus and Cassius (42), Cleopatra became his mistress, bearing him three children, Alexander, Ptolemy, and Cleopatra. At Alexandria for the winter, he treated her as a queen independent of Rome. He left the next year (40). A renewal of the first triumvirate gave him control of the eastern provinces, in return for which he married Octavia, the sister of AUGUSTUS. After the establishment of the second triumvirate (37), he returned to Alexandria and married Cleopatra without divorcing Octavia.