chapter  2
History and Development of DIF: Nancy S. Cole
Pages 5

This era was marked, of course, by enormous concern for equal opportunity, by attack on systems viewed as discriminating from education to employment to social services, by development of the popular and legal concept of affirmative action, by a racial/ethnic self-consciousness shown in ways ranging from Black power to federal reporting requirements by race. Educational differences resulting from unequal educational systems of the past, like different employment rates in good jobs, were seen as the vestiges of the old discriminatory order. Test scores reflecting those differences were viewed by many in the same light as seniority or job experience in promotion or hiring: available only to the favored group, the outward embodiment of years of wrongdoing.