chapter  6
5 Pages

Drives versus motivational systems

In classical Freudian psychoanalysis it is assumed that human beings, by virtue of their inherited disposition, are ruled by two drives: that of sexuality and of aggression. Jung questioned this view long ago because he thought that it too greatly narrowed the multidimensionality of human psychic life. Thus he doubted its validity, already as early as 1912, in his book, Symbols of transformation. He came to the view that libido, or psychic energy, could express itself in any number of qualities, each endowed with a particular intensity. Naturally, psychic energy manifests itself in sexuality and aggression, but also in the power drive, in intellectual and creative pursuits, and finally also in the drive towards individuation. There is also libido, or energy, at the disposal of consciousness and the ego. This libido manifests itself in the so-called free and controllable will. The so-called free will was defined by Jung in a very experience-near way, namely, as the sum of psychic energy which is at the disposal of consciousness (Jung, 1921, par. 844).