Growth management continues to be one of the foremost issues in land use planning. It is also one of the most hotly contested issues facing areas around the country. At the local government level (discussed in Chapter 10), it has had a surprisingly long history, dating back to the late 1960s and early 1970s. (Involvement by the states-discussed in the following chapter-came later.) The most famous legal cases are Ramapo (New York) and Petaluma (California), which, in different ways, added the concept of timing to the two traditional planning dimensions of location and use. The idea is a simple, persuasive one: that development should proceed in parallel, or concurrent, with the requisite infrastructure. In addition, the need to refocus growth by infill development, revitalizing existing areas, and centering development around transit centers has emerged in the Smart Growth movement.