Orthodox Islam and Sufism
In a general sense, while the Ummayad era (661-750) was a period of expansion for Islam, the Abbasid age was a period of consolidation. The early Ummayads were committed to keeping the Arab conquerors separate from the conquered people. They confined their soldiers to garrison towns and forbade sexual liaisons between them and nonArab women. They provided protection to the non-Muslim population on payment of a poll tax, a practice initiated by Prophet Muhammad after his victory at Khaibar, an oasis populated largely by Jewish tribes. They were lukewarm to the idea of converting native populations to Islam.