ANDEAN WITCHES AND VIRGINS: Seventeenth-century nativism and subversive gender ideologies
Gender saturated the ordering of social experience in the Andean world under Inca rule: productive relations, the cosmos and its deities, strands of political domination were all highly marked by gendered structures and imageries. No single gender ideology characterized these representations; rather, multiple ideologies were contested, interpreted, and reinterpreted by the Inca empire's men and women, peasant and elite. Two gender models seem to stand out, however, for their impact on
Andean life-ways: gender parallelism and the conquest hierarchy. Both, albeit in different ways, were undermined and appealed to in the centuries' long process of Spanish colony-making and Andeans' challenges to it.