Music and the Cognitive Sciences 1990
Music and the Cognitive Sciences 1990
ByIan Cross, Irene Deliege
Edition 1st Edition
First Published 1993
eBook Published 2 August 2004
Pub. location New York
Pages 368 pages
eBook ISBN 9780203393284
Cross, I., Deliege, I. (1993). Music and the Cognitive Sciences 1990. New York: Routledge, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203393284
This issue comprises the twenty-five papers presented at the Second Music and the Cognitive Sciences conference held at Cambridge University in 1990.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Application to the xylophone music of Central Africa
Figure 3 Points: mean responses (26 data per point in part a, 52 in parts b– e). Bars: 95% confidence intervals. Squares: correlation coefficients between tone profiles according to (8), with k =4 and k=2.1, adjusted linearly to have the same mean and standard deviation as mean responses over all 60 values. In part e, the comparison chord is 047 (major triad)
Figure 4 Two-dimensional configuration of single instruments positioned by a professor of musicology on the basis of mental image of timbre (Bb4). Dimension 1 (left to right) was “nasal” to “not nasal” and dimension 2 (top to bottom) was “rich” to “brilliant.” From Kendall & Carterette (1991).
(sagittal), became available to clinicians and brain scientists only in the last decade. In (a), the dotted line demarcates the temporal lobe (T); the top portion (superior surface) of the temporal lobe houses the auditory area in man. In (b), the arrows indicate the extent of the corpus callosum, the semilunar bundle of nerve fibers which connects the left and right hemispheres. In split-brain patients, the callosum is cut.
flashed in one visual field (here the picture of the violin is flashed in the left visual field), it is conveyed to the contralateral hemisphere (here the right hemisphere). In normal subjects, because of visual transfer across the corpus callosum, both hemispheres see the picture; in split-brain patients, no such transfer is possible, so only one hemisphere sees the picture. A tachistoscope is used to flash the picture for 150msec, faster than the eye can move, otherwise the picture might reach both hemispheres because of eye movements. A fast Fourier transform of the first 400msec of the violin sound is shown at the top of the figure [y axis=time in msec, x=kilohertz (kHz, or 1000cps), and height=relative amplitude (quantized sample value units)]. An example of one of the five melodic structures used to present the instrument sounds (here chromatic-variable) is also shown. In the next trial, a trumpet will play and a picture of a piano is flashed to the left hemisphere, and so on. (See text for further details of the experimental procedure).
Figure 3 Bar graph illustrating the observed “double dissociation”: the left hemisphere was significantly more accurate than the right (p<.01) on the musical instrument timbre recognition task, while the right hemisphere performed significantly better than the left hemisphere on the Seashore Timbre Test (p<.05). For convenience, per cent accuracy is averaged across the two subjects, both of whom showed the same pattern of significant left-right differences (Tramo & Gazzaniga 1989, 1990).
congruent or incongruent background melodic temporal pattern (top panel) and as a function of height of the bounce and congruent or incongruent background melodic pitch height (bottom panel). Figure 3 Schematic representation of a simple model of information integration from multiple visual and auditory dimensions which gives rise to the resultant meaning of the audio visual stimulus.
characters as a function of the two contrasting musical soundtracks (Weak and Strong) and a condition with no soundtrack (Control). If there were no effect of background music, the data for the two music conditions would not differ from the Control conditions and all lines would be horizontal (Figure © 1988 by the Regents of the University of California, reprinted from Music Perception, Vol. 6, No. 1, Fall, p. 107, by permission.)
Figure 2 The timing profile of an attempt to imitate an inverted version of one of the four melodies used in the imitation experiment (see text). Note the ‘cross over’ halfway through the performance, where the performer, having followed the inversion target quite closely, reverts to the timing profile of the original performance target.
outlined in the paper according to multiple viewpoints arranged in the following order of succession: “modal skeleton”, “tonalization”, “generation of the fourth voice” and “absolute pitch assignment”. The soprano line is a Bachian melody used also in Ebcioglu (1988). Figure 3 A modal example realised as follows: “modal skeleton”, fioriturae (figuration) and “absolute pitch assignment”. The cantus firmus has been drawn from Koechlin (1925).
Composition as design