References are sometimes regarded as indexing terms-a well-devised collection of cited items about different aspects of the subject of the citing publication should reflect the subject content of that publication. At a late stage of writing this book I noted that there were 421 references to multimedia (subsequently to become nearly 500) distributed as shown in Tables 1.1 and 1.2. In Table 1.1, the date of 421 references in the Multimedia Manual to the literature of earlier decades are shown. This was the situation when the book was nearly completed in June 1995. The twelve authors of the earliest papers cited up
to the end of the 1960s are shown in Table 1.2. These authors are notable pioneers who contributed to the foundations of the subject. Their papers contain not a whiff of multimedia per se. They were writing about coding, transmission, information systems, and politics. Thus Harry Nyquist and Claude Shannon wrote seminal papers about data rates-an important consideration when the electrical transmission of multimedia information is being discussed. Vannevar Bush did much more than write a famous article entitled ‘As we may think’. He was the prime mover in attempting to devise code-breaking machines during the First World War and could be called ‘the world’s first information scientist’.