The book has now examined both the original formulation of the NIDL writers and the experience of the selected societies over the last three decades. The discussion and evidence provided has shown the need to broaden the original formulation to incorporate an understanding of the role of the nation state, region, and locality. It is not possible to simply ‘read off from a consideration of global capitalist change the structure of particular societies. Consequently, a theoretical understanding is required which can accommodate both causal and contingent processes. The three cases explored here raise important questions regarding both the commonality of experience and of the conceptualisation of the world system. It is important to recognise that change can flow in both directions, rather than simply downwards from the ‘core’ nations. It is also necessary to appreciate that changes are mediated through the social structures which have emerged within nation states over time, leading to modifications to global processes and the emergence of varied forms of local resistance to change.