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Friends First-Day School Association, (FFDSA) Many of the early adult schools in England were started by the Society of Friends (Quakers). This association became the co-ordinating association for these schools. Friends of the International Council for Adult Education Although ICAE does not have an individual membership, it does have a network of friends who subscribe to its work. front-end model of education Term used to convey that education was something that was offered in the early years of life and that, by implication, there was no education beyond it. Frontier College Started in Canada in 1899 as the Reading Camps Association for all labourers who needed basic education. Frontier colleges were established in forestry and railway camps seeking to reach all the workers but as the frontiers have been pushed back so the work of the college has changed. Fryer Report The report Learning for the Twenty-First Century which was made to the UK government in 1997, sometimes called after the committee chairman. full-time equivalent A formula for funding whereby a number of part-time equivalents are assessed as being equivalent to a full-time student, or teacher, as the case may be. full-time part-time adult educator An adult educator who works as a part-time adult educator in a number of different adult education institutions doing what is effectively a full-time job. functional illiteracy In the United States a term used for those with less than 6 years full-time schooling, although this figure is not fixed. functional literacy 1. The ability to read, write and calculate so that individuals may engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning of their group and community and also enabling them to continue to use reading, writing and calculation for their own and the community’s development. It should be noted that the Spanish alfabetización funcional and the French alphabétisation fonctionnelle signify the process of acquiring or of teaching the skill, rather than the state of possessing it. 2. UNESCO has defined this as having acquired the knowledge and skills in reading and writing which enable a person to engage effectively in all those activities in which literacy is normally assumed in their culture or group. See also semi-literate. Fund for Adult Education Established in 1951 in the United States by the Ford Foundation to assist all men and women to continue their education. The Foundation was closed in 1961. Grants from the Fund had four objectives: to increase knowledge and skill; to recruit and train those who could lead liberal adult education programmes; to strength university adult education programmes; to assist the use of liberal adult education in training. further education 1. In the United Kingdom, this refers to part-time and full-time education at the post-compulsory school age, usually regarded as of lower standard than higher education (advanced further education) in the United Kingdom. Traditionally this referred to the 16-19-year-old young adult but now

it is much broader. Liberal adult education is also regarded administratively as a sector of further education and many colleges of further education have departments of adult education. 2. The term has become almost synonymous with continuing education. 3. In the Federal Republic of Germany, this term covers adult education, continuing education, and vocational retraining and is defined as ‘all forms of continuation or resumption of studies after completion of the first educational phase of varying duration and as a rule after taking up fulltime employment’. It is for adults of all age groups and educational qualifications, and may be vocational or general. further education college Initially a college that offered education to the 16-19 year olds in the United Kingdom, although these colleges have now extended their work. Similar to the community college in the United States. See also further education. Further Education Staff College UK college involved in curriculum development, management and staff development in further education.