Institute for Learning in Retirement An American network of non-formal educational institutions that developed from the mid-1960s to provide education and learning opportunities for third agers. In 1988, Elderhostel merged with the loose federation of institutes and created the Elderhostel Institute Network. Institute for Retired Professionals Founded in 1962 under the sponsorship of the New School for Social Research in New York City, this became the first institute for learning in retirement. It was first institute for seniors’ learning in the world. See University of the Third Age. institution 1. An organization. 2. A patterned and socially regulated form of behaviour. 3. A total institution is a closed organization, such as a prison. instruct 1. To direct or order. 2. Teaching method of a didactic nature. 3. To authorize. instruction The process of teaching, but often used in relation to training. instructional design The process of preparing a programme or a course in a specific manner, utilizing educational technology in order to achieve specific objectives. instructional games See gaming. instructional material Teaching aids. instructional objectives The instructor’s specific aims for a teaching and learning session. They are usually non-negotiable and behavioural in orientation. instructional technology The development and design of teaching aids. instructor One who instructs; a teacher. However, the term is often associated with teaching at a low level, including helping students to acquire skills. Occasionally, in the United States it is used with wider connotations of teaching to include all that the teacher does to help adults learn. instrument 1. A tool. 2. Often used in the language of US research to refer to an accepted and validated research tool, such as a questionnaire, attitude inventory, which is utilized in a research process. 3. A musical instrument. instrumentalism A system of pragmatic philosophy that holds that ideas are instruments that should guide actions to bring about change. Hence, for some liberal adult educators instrumentalism in education is the very antithesis of the purposes of liberal education and even of education itself. See also technical rationality. integrated course 1. A course, or a programme, in which the theoretical and the practical are combined. 2. An interdisciplinary course. integrated curriculum 1. A curriculum in which all the parts fit into a meaningful whole. 2. A curriculum in which all the subjects are taught in a multidisciplinary manner. integrated education A term used to signify that different races, ages, religious or gender groups are taught together. integrated learning systems A planned use of a number of different approaches to learning and modes of delivering teaching in order to achieve specified learning outcomes.