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Kapp, Alexander In 1833 Kapp, a German school teacher, is reputed to have introduced the word andragogy into the educational vocabulary. Kawamoto, Unosuke (1888-1960) A leading theorist of social education in Japan, concentrating upon the richness of leisure. Kekkonen, Helena Finnish adult education who has specialized in peace education. Winner of the UNESCO Peace Prize in 1981. Keller Plan A programmed learning plan in which the student studies prepared material at their own pace and then must complete the unit test successfully before moving on to the next one. See mastery learning, personalized system of instruction. Kellogg Foundation Established in 1930 by W K Kellogg with the intention of helping people to help themselves. Consequently, institutional and communitybased adult education has actually been the recipient of a great deal of support from the Foundation. Kelly’s Personal Construct A system constructed by the psychologist George Kelly, which assumes that human behaviour is based upon experimentation and that people construe their world by bipolar opposites, eg black and white, good and bad, etc. key participants The use of significant personnel in the evaluation of training. keynote lecture A major, or opening, lecture of a conference or a course. keystoning The effect produced when the image from an overhead projector is not square, but wider at the top than at the bottom. This distortion is produced because the angle of projection is not perpendicular to the angle of the screen. khaki college A Canadian adult education movement during the First World War for the education of men in the armed forces. khit-pen 1. Term used in Thailand, meaning ‘to know how to think’; it describes the philosophy of that country’s adult/non-formal education service. It involves three forms of knowledge-of self, society and the environment. 2. The title of Thailand’s non-formal education journal, that was established in 1980. Kidd, J Roby (1915-82) Canadian adult educator, first secretary-general of the International Council for Adult Education. Kidd, J Roby Award Annual award of $1,500 Canadian, to individual or individuals who have made a significant contribution to adult education. The

award is made in association with the International Council for Adult Education that administers the award. Kidd, J Roby Trust Fund Established in memory of Roby Kidd and administered by the International Council for Adult Education. kinesthetic learner One who learns best while moving around and through tactile engagement. kite mark An official mark of quality, so that kite marked educational courses are those that have been approved by the kite marking agency. Kjellberg, Knut (1867-1921) First chairman of the Popular Education Association in Sweden. know-how The ability to do things. See practical knowledge. Know-how Fund A UK government fund, giving grants to help initiatives, usually initiatives abroad. knowledge 1. The certainty that phenomena are real and that they possess certain characteristics. 2. The domain of truth propositions. 3. Mastery of principles. 4. Fundamentally, knowledge is subjective, although the idea of objective scientific knowledge has prevailed since the Enlightenment, although it is now being called into question. 5. Knowledge can be classified according to the manner in which it is legitimated-empirical, logical or pragmatic. knowledge class A concept that has become familiar within the social sciences, especially since the emergence of post-industrial society, to refer to four distinct groupings of people: the scientific, the technological, the administrative, and the cultural sections of modern society. This group should be seen as separate from intellectuals and the intelligentsia. knowledge industry Industry in which knowledge is the commodity traded. knowledge manager An occupational professional in the knowledge-based industries whose function is to ensure that the essential knowledge required by the company is stored and managed so that it can be used efficiently by all its employees. The knowledge is usually stored electronically. knowledge manufacture The creation of information in such a manner as to produce it as socially accepted knowledge; this usually reflects the biases of those who control the process. See hegemony. Knowledge Network A learning network in Canada. knowledge production (mode 1) Knowledge that is produced in accordance with scientific practice. knowledge production (mode 2) Knowledge produced in the context of application, through the process of continuous negotiation in which the interests of all the actors are incorporated. knowledge society A society that is dependent upon the supply of information and knowledge in order to function efficiently. See information society. knowledge worker An employee who uses knowledge or information as the basis of their work. Some 30 per cent of the work force, it is estimated will fall into this category. See symbolic analysts.