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Laubach Literacy International News The quarterly newsletter of Laubach Literacy International. law of effect One of Edward Thorndike’s laws that states that satisfaction serves as a reinforcer of the stimulus-response bonds. law of exercise This is one of Thorndike’s laws and refers to the process of strengthening the connection between stimulus and response through practice. law of readiness A law of Thorndike-that when a person is ready to act in a certain way, it is because it is a satisfying thing to do. laws of learning These are laws associated with the work of Edward Thorndike. lay leader 1. An unordained leader in the Christian churches. 2. Term employed by C O Houle in his pyramid of leadership to refer to the volunteer leaders who are adult educators by virtue of their work, eg youth club leaders. lay training Term used in the Christian churches to refer to the education and training of unordained people, so that they can either become workers for the church, or in order to make them more effective Christians in their everyday lives. lead lecture A presentation designed to open up a subject, upon which a class or conference will then focus for further discussion. leader One who accepts responsibilities to guide, rule, or control a group or organization. leadership 1. The ability of a person to influence the actions, behaviour, beliefs, and feelings of another person or persons and gain their co-operation. 2. The ability to attract followers to the performance of a task. 3. In US graduate programmes it is about researching and teaching the principles of administrative practice in educational institutions. leadership style The way in which leaders perform their role, eg authoritarian, democratic. learn There are many definitions of the process of learning, depending upon the perspective one adopts towards the study of learning: 1. A more or less permanent change in behaviour as a result of experience. 2. The acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes as a result of experience. 3. The transformation of experience into knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, beliefs, senses, etc. 4. The construction and transformation of experience into knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, values, emotions, senses, etc See learning. learned goal A goal which is itself acquired through learning. learner One who learns, a student. learner analysis The identification of an intended audience for a learning activity and the significant characteristics of those learners. learner-centred education Teaching and learning which focuses upon the students’ learning needs and processes rather than teaching and the teachers’ aims. A great deal of the early theory for this approach is to be found in the work of John Dewey. See student-centred learning, Eduard Lindeman. learner-controlled instruction The process in which the learner assumes responsibility for setting the educational objectives of a teaching and learning

session so that the responsibility for self-development lies with the learner. Used in certain work situations. learnership Formal training arrangement between employer and employee, but not involving an apprenticeship. learning There are many definitions of learning, all reflecting the academic specialisms from which the study is conducted. 1. The process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, beliefs, emotions, senses, etc. 2. The sum total of the process of acquiring knowledge, skills etc, eg a learned person. 3. Sometimes it is wrongly used as a synonym for education, eg adult learning. Significantly, it is replacing the term education in the educational vocabulary. See learn. Learning A quarterly journal, published by the Canadian Association for Adult Education. learning account A financial account established by individuals to fund their learning-it is a proposal espoused by the Labour government’s plans for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom in 1997-98. Learning Activity Centre Centre in the non-formal education programme in Sri Lanka providing learning opportunities to non-schoolers in remote parts of the country. learning activity package A self-contained set of learning materials designed to assist learners master some specific area of knowledge or skill. Learning Age The title of the UK Labour government’s Green Paper on lifelong learning. learning block Something that prevents a person from learning-it may be psychological or situational. learning by immersion Used in language teaching, when students live in a community where only the language they are to learn is spoken all the time; they are immersed in the language. Learning Campaign An educational project in UK, sponsored by the Royal Society of Arts to encourage a greater awareness of the need to learn. learning centre A place where individuals can go to learn; often it will now be a centre where the learners can use electronic technology in order to access learning material. learning community An organized group of individuals working together in order to increase their knowledge, skills, or sensitivity. learning contract A contract between two or more persons (usually involving a tutor) to learn certain knowledge or skill within a specified time. The contract is often made in writing, although there are probably many more informal contracts made between tutors and learners. Knowles suggested that it was learnerdesigned, planned, implemented and evaluated. learning culture The overall environment of a group or an organization committed to learning-it involves: the physical design and layout; the emotional culture with a supportive attitude towards risk; a mental culture which

stimulates learning; a macro culture which is the organization’s own vision and values, often laid down by the leadership of the organization. learning curve A graphic representation of the actual or expected rate of acquisition of knowledge or skill. learning cycle A cyclic model of the learning process. See, for instance, Kolb’s learning cycle. learning diary See learning log. learning difficulty The failure to make satisfactory progress through a course of study. See learning block. Learning Direct A telephone educational guidance service established in the United Kingdom as part the Labour government’s initiative in lifelong learning in the latter part of the 1990s. learning disability An inability to learn something as a result of a sensory handicap or cultural deprivation. An improper neurological process that inhibits learning capability in otherwise normally functioning people. learning environment The total set of conditions that influence learning. learning episode A defined period of time in which learning occurs or is planned. The period of time may vary from a moment to a much longer period, although it is unwise to specify time length, except for specific purposes. See learning project. learning exchange 1. An educational brokering agency whose task is to match those who wish to teach something with those who wish to learn the same topic. See free university. 2. Freely available educational institute for adults, occurs in Australia. learning exchange network A learning exchange developed in the United States to cater for rural populations. They are locally organized. Learning for All UNESCO conference held in Thailand. Learning for the Twenty-First Century The title of the first report of the UK government’s advisory committee on lifelong learning. See Fryer Report. learning from experience 1. Term used to refer to the type of learning that is facilitated by teachers providing primary experiences from which the learners can learn through induction. 2. Learning from all the experiences of everyday living, stemming from the work of John Dewey. See experiential learning. Learning from Experience Trust An educational charity established in the United Kingdom to promote experiential learning. learning how to learn The recognition that people need to learn how to learn to cope with the rapidly changing world, especially true of the world of work where courses are now run in order to help people acquire the skills of learning. Learning in Later Life A European network about third age learning, based at the University of Ulm. learning journal See journal, learning log. learning laboratory Specially equipped room for learners with either programmed or other self-instructional materials for independent study.