Raikes, Robert The founder of the first Sunday School in England, in Gloucester in 1789. Ramsay, Allan Started the first circulating library in Edinburgh in 1726. Rand School of Social Science Opened in New York in 1906, to provide workers with an education so that they could play their part in the labor unions, socialist party and the co-operative movement Financial difficulties forced its closure. random learning See incidental learning. random sample A sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected every time a selection is made. It is the only pure manner of sampling. rank order marking A technique of assessing students’ work through placing them in order of merit, according to specified criteria. rapid reading Techniques that enable readers to read faster than normal. rate-of-return studies Studies that have examined the incomes of adults in relation to the cost of their education, showing the rate of return on the original educational investment. rate of return to education A method that seeks to analyse the cost-benefit of education, by comparing the earning of adults with extended education to those whose education has been more restricted. rationality The use of reason or logic to think out a problem. The fact that a solution is rational does not mean that it is either correct or the only possible solution to a problem. See also instrumentalism, technical rationality. raw data Unanalysed data in research. raw score Statistical data that have not been analysed by statistical techniques. re-accreditation The process in which members of a profession have to undergo specified continuing professional education and be examined for professional competence in order to retain the right to continue to practise. In the United States, this is sometimes called re-certifying or re-licensing. reaction time The period of time between the presentation of a stimulus and a response to it. reactive Responsive to stimuli. See proactive. readability 1. The ease of understanding written material. 2. The total of all the elements in a piece of written work that affect the success a reader will have in understanding its intended meaning. 3. Formula purporting to measure reading difficulty as indicated by grade level. reader 1. A position in a UK university which is usually awarded for high academic achievement. 2. A person employed by a publisher to assess the suitability of book manuscripts and proposals for publication. 3. A symposium of articles collected to form the basic reading for a course of study. Readers’ Advisory Service The first specified adult education role within the American library service-it started in 1926. reading age A score on a standardized reading test given in terms of age equivalent reading scores.