Theoretical disciplines as the foundation of normative disciplines
To clear up this point, let us ﬁrst discuss the concept of a normative science in its relation to that of a theoretical science. The laws of the former tell us (it is usually held) what shall or should be, though perhaps, under the actual circumstances, it neither is nor can be. The laws of the latter, contrariwise, merely tell us what is. We must now ask what is meant by such a ‘shall be’ or ‘should be’ as opposed to what is.