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The original meaning of underdevelopment was a neutral one, simply defining the condition of poorer countries which then were called underdeveloped countries. Urban geography is concerned with the spatial attributes of towns and cities and with the ways in which they affect - and are affected by - physical, demographic, economic, social, cultural and political processes. Like other aspects of human geography, urban geography is concerned with local variability within a general context. Hydraulic engineering was always a major influence upon urban planning from the ancient empires of Egypt and Mesopotamia, to the development of cities in The Netherlands. The demographic study of urbanization has concentrated on the movement of people between rural and urban areas on a world scale, and on the differential level, pace and pattern of this redistribution between the more and less developed countries. Jeremy Bentham's hedonistic utilitarianism called for the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.