chapter  5
78 Pages

Verbs A Forms 501–517 B The use of the tenses 518–533 C Ways of expressing mood 534–538 D Transitive, intransitive and reflexive verbs 539–541 E S-forms of the verb and the passive 542–553 F Compound verbs 554–559 G Some problem verbs 560–561

A FORMS 501 Principal parts and generalised endings 502 First conjugation 503 Second conjugation 504 Irregular verbs of the second conjugation 505 Third conjugation 506 Irregular verbs of the third conjugation 507 Fourth conjugation: introduction 508 Fourth conjugation: gradation series i-e-i-i 509 Fourth conjugation: gradation series y/(j)u-ö-u-u 510 Fourth conjugation: gradation series i-a-u-u 511 Fourth conjugation: gradation series a-o-a-a 512 Fourth conjugation: gradation series ä-a-u-u 513 Fourth conjugation: minor gradation series 514 Verbs-forms: summary chart 515 Long and short forms 516 Verbs with alternative forms 517 Plural forms

B THE USE OF THE TENSES 518 The infinitive-major uses 519 The infinitive in English and Swedish and the English gerund 520 The present tense 521 The present tense in English and Swedish and the English progressive (or continuous) tense 522 The past tense 523 The perfect tense 524 The pluperfect tense 525 The future tense 526 The future perfect tense 527 The future of the past 528 The future perfect of the past 529 Time planes

530 Compatibility of tenses 531 The supine and past participle 532 The present participle 533 Renderings of the English present participle into Swedish

C WAYS OF EXPRESSING MOOD 534 Introduction 535 Modal auxiliary verbs 536 The subjunctive 537 The imperative 538 Conditional clauses

D TRANSITIVE, INTRANSITIVE AND REFLEXIVE VERBS 539 Introduction 540 Transitive and intransitive verbs 541 Reflexive verbs

E S-FORMS OF THE VERB AND THE PASSIVE 542 S-forms of the verb: form 543 S-forms of the verb: summary of use 544 The reciprocal 545 The deponent 546 Absolute use of the s-verb 547 The passive: introduction 548 The s-passive 549 Forms of bli+past participle 550 Forms of vara+past participle 551 Man etc.+active verb 552 Factors underlying the use of different passive forms 553 Differences in the use of the passive in English and Swedish

F COMPOUND VERBS 554 Introduction 555 Inseparable verbs 556 Separable verbs 557 Separable or inseparable forms-stylistic differences 558 Separable or inseparable forms-semantic differences 559 Separable verbs-the position of the particle

G SOME PROBLEM VERBS 560 Translation into Swedish of some problem verbs 561 Translation into Swedish of the verb ‘to be’

501 Principal parts and generalised endings

(a) The principal parts of the verb are the most useful forms to memorise, namely the three inflexional forms, infinitive, past and supine-since all the other forms may easily be derived from them (see 502-514):

The stem is that part of the verb to which inflexional endings (marked in italic) are added. Swedish has both vowel stems:

and consonant stems:

The supine is indeclinable and used together with forms of the auxiliary verb ha: ha to form the perfect infinitive, har to form the perfect tense and hade to form the pluperfect tense (see 523f.):

The past participle functions largely as an adjective and helps to form one type of passive construction (see 531, 547, 549f):

The present participle is most often used as an adjective or noun (see 532):

Infinitive Past Supine Meaning

arbeta arbetade arbetat work

Imperative Present Present participle Past participle

arbeta! arbetar arbetande arbetard, non-neuter

arbetat, neuter

arbetade, plural/def.