chapter  10
80 Pages

SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND WORD ORDER

A SENTENCE ELEMENTS 1001 Word classes and sentence elements 1002 Subject 1003 Det as impersonal and formal (place-holder) subject 1004 Finite and non-finite verb 1005 Direct and indirect object 1006 Complement 1007 Adverbial 1008 The order of sentence elements

B PHRASES 1009 Introduction 1010 The noun phrase 1011 The verb phrase 1012 The adjective phrase 1013 The adverb phrase 1014 The prepositional phrase

C MAIN CLAUSE WORD ORDER-BASIC POSITIONS 1015 Main clause and subordinate clause 1016 FV1, FV2 and the position of the subject 1017 Sentence types 1018 Main clause positions

D SUBORDINATE CLAUSE WORD ORDER-BASIC POSITIONS 1019 Subordinate clause positions 1020 Differences between main clause and subordinate clause positions

E ORDER WITHIN POSITIONS 1021 Order of non-finite verbs and verb particles 1022 Order of objects and complements 1023 Order of clausal adverbials 1024 Order of other adverbials and the passive agent 1025 Order within positions-summary

A SENTENCE ELEMENTS

1001 Word classes and sentence elements

Previous chapters of this book have been concerned with word cl asses, that is with classification according to the form or meaning of words. In this ch apter the functions o f words and word groups in the sentence, i.e. sentence elements, are examined. A

F MAIN CLAUSE TRANSFORMATIONS 1026 The base clause 1027 Topicalisation 1028 The weight principle 1029 Adverbial shift 1030 ‘Light’ elements 1031 Negation 1032 Passive transformation 1033 Existential senten ces and the place-holder 1034 Extra positions 1035 Link position 1036 Questions

G SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 1037 Form of the subordinate clause 1038 Function of the subordinate clause 1039 Position of the subordinate clause in the sentence 1040 Clauses with no indicator of subordination 1041 Main clause word order in att-clauses 1042 Conditional clauses 1043 Independent clauses

H EMPHASIS 1044 Emphasis and positions 1045 Fronting 1046 Raising 1047 Duplication 1048 Cleft sentence

J ELLIPSIS 1049 Introduction 1050 Non-finite clauses 1051 Verb omission and subject omission 1052 Apposition and the predicative attribute 1053 Main and subordinate clause word order, the extended scheme: summary

comparison of the two viewpoints can be made from the following analysis:

In section A the different sentence elements or building blocks are each examined in some detail, whilst in 1008 these are located in a scheme showing their relative order in the sentence. Section B examines phrases bui lt around each of a numb er of word classes, and shows how these phrases form sentence elements. The sentence scheme, with its seven positions, is explained for the main clau se in section C, for the subordinate clause in section D. The seven positions are analys ed in greater depth in section E, whilst p ossible movement of elements within positions (transformations) and possible additional positions are dealt with in section F.