chapter  11
47 Pages

WORD FORMATION

A AFFIXATION 1102 Swedish and foreign affixes 1103 Productivity 1104 Prefixes 1105 Table of prefixes 1106 Suffixes 1107 Table of suffixes 1108 Retrogradation 1109 Zero suffix

B COMPOUNDING 1110 Introduction 1111 Compound nouns-forms by word class 1112 Compound nouns-form of links 1113 Guide to noun links 1114 Compound nouns-meaning 1115 Compound adjectives and numerals-forms by word class 1116 Compound adjectives-meaning 1117 Compound verbs-forms by word class and the particle verb 1118 Compound adverbs, conjunctions and prepositions 1119 Derivational compounding

C EXPRESSIVE FORMATION 1120 Hypocorism 1121 Onamatopoetic formation 1122 Contamination, euphemism, folk etymology

D ABBREVIATION 1123 Clippings and blends 1124 Acronyms

E FOREIGN INFLUENCES ON SWEDISH 1125 Types of foreign influence 1126 Latin and Greek 1127 German

1101 Introduction

(a) Many words in Swedish are directly des cended from Proto-Indoeuropean, Common Germanic or Common Norse, i.e. the la nguages from which Swedish itself has developed. Examples of such indigenous words are:

man, kvinna, far, mor, bror, syster, and, fisk, get, gås, hund, ko, älg, al, ask, bok, hassel, lind, rönn, berg, dal, en, två, tre-tio, jag, mig, du, dig, vad, arm, fot, kind, knä

N ew words in Swedish have arisen by a number of different processes:

(b) These processes may be illustrated by the following examples, many based on the root vän ‘friend’:

1 AFFIXATION

1128 The Nordic languages and Finnish 1129 French 1130 English 1131 Other languages

F CONVERSION 1132 Adjective to noun 1133 Noun to adjective 1134 Adverb to adjective 1135 Verb to noun

1 Affixation –adding a prefix/suffix to an existing root

2 Compounding –adding a root to a root

3 Abbreviation –shortening words, sometimes to their initial letters

4 Borrowing –importing words from other languages

5 Expressive formation

–e.g. forming a pet name or imitating a sound

6 Conversion –i.e. using a word from one word class as if it belonged to a different class.