chapter  2
Public and Legal Rights
Pages 11

Distinctions were made in the rights of women on the basis of both marital status and class. However, there were also restrictions imposed by law on all women qua women, which is one of the justifications offered for treating them as a distinct class in the literature of the estates. By law, a woman had no share whatsoever in the government of the kingdom and of the society. A woman could not hold political office, or serve as a military commander, judge or lawyer. The law barred her from filling any public office and from participating in any institutions of government, from manorial courts to municipal institutions, royal councils and representative assemblies in the various countries. The literature of the estates declares explicitly: ‘Women must be kept out of all public office. They must devote themselves to their feminine and domestic occupations.’1 Or, as the English jurist Glanville put it: ‘They are not able, have no need to, and are not accustomed to serving their lord the king, either in the army or in any other royal service.’2